University of Cambridge Study: Reading More Wisely

In this study, Cambridge University examined several themes of online literacy intervention including 'place', 'travel', and 'independence'.

The Reading More Wisely report, written in 2015 by Professor John MacBeath and Dr Alex Alexandrou of the University of Cambridge, offers fascinating insight into the challenges facing schools when integrating literacy interventions. Some of the themes covered include:


An evaluation of ReadingWise (2014-15) 

Executive Summary 

In 2014, ReadingWise invited us to carry out an independent study of its Computer-Based Literacy  Programme for Accelerated Reading Acquisition. 

Following exploratory meetings, schools and adult learning centres in eight locations throughout England agreed to participate in the evaluation. The 100 or so participants ranged in age from 6 to 50. Fuller details of the methodology are given in the appendix to this report and in greater detail in our 30-page report summary. 

The theoretical underpinning draws on the work of Andrea Gaggioli who adopted the concept of Flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990)[1]  to examine heightened experiences when using technology and associated learning improvements. The essential purpose of the ReadingWise programme is not simply to increase reading age but to enhance self-confidence and self-efficacy. The four key components of Flow – control, attention, curiosity, and intrinsic interest – can be used as a tool to measure these effects. 

A term of trial 

Over the first school term, from October 2014 to December 2014, the programme was trialed in one primary school and one adult learning centre, identifying the seminal strengths of the programme and allowing for some of the more problematic issues to be addressed before rolling it out to all sites. 

This period coincided with the rebuilding of the underpinning technology platform of the ReadingWise programme,  with feedback reinforcing the platform’s elevation. Issues identified at that stage included a choice of venue, timing, and frequency of interventions, differential engagement with the programme, technical issues, the importance of skilled supervision, reinforcement of success, and support beyond the school or adult learning centre. These were discussed with the ReadingWise team as a prelude to observations in all participating schools and centres.  

From January 2015 the trial was extended to all sites. Between January and April, each site was visited four times,  following a defined common protocol of introduction and familiarisation, initial observations, follow-up discussions with pupils and school staff, feedback, and final discussions with senior leaders and supervising staff. 20 key learnings were identified in the evaluation report, summarised here under seven headings. 

A question of priorities, timing, and access

Twenty to thirty minutes a day over a school term was recommended as an optimum time for engagement with the programme. 

However, where this was not possible, a minimum of three sessions weekly was advised to help overcome the challenge of trying to accommodate a demanding curriculum within a tightly timetabled day and in an increasingly pressurised policy environment. 

While ReadingWise sessions were seen by headteachers and teachers as a high priority, sessions had somehow to be fitted around competing demands, not only curricular subjects but swimming,  sports, P.E., appointments with learning support, visiting psychologists, health visitors, social or care workers. While lunchtimes were sometimes preferred because they did not disrupt lessons this was not always popular with young people, especially after the excitement of the first few weeks had settled into a more commonplace routine. 

Extracting children from classes could also prove disruptive and teachers said that potential gains had to be weighed against direct subject teaching. 

In arranging interviews with young people in the secondary school the supervising teacher asked that these be conducted as early as possible in the morning as enthusiasm and engagement tended to decline progressively over the day. While there is evidence that some children, particularly teenagers, are not fully alert until later in the morning, when questioned as to whether she liked the early morning session, one pupil replied - “You’re tired but you do it because it’s good”. 

These were not salient issues for adult learners, free from the pressures and logistics of the school day, although not necessarily always free from domestic and family commitments.


Optimising time 

While the optimum time on task for children and young people was seen as around twenty minutes, adults could spend up to an hour on the site, although often needed to take short breaks. There were examples of adults reaching a ‘saturation’ point and finishing the session early, particularly in the case of those with minimal literacy skills for whom the sustained effort proved too tiring. 

While supervisors recommended two hours of engagement a week, one hour for the designated session and the second hour in their own time, adults without internet access at home could only engage with the programme in the centre. The challenge for them was to be able to fit a second visit to the centre around their personal and work commitments.

Selection: stigma or privilege? 

“As a teacher what I was highly impressed with was the engagement and independence of the students. Initially, we were quite worried that we would have to babysit the students and talk them through it, but one of the things myself and the headteacher were incredibly impressed by was with how quickly they adapted to it and they were very independent and put their headphones on, they’d log in.  They know exactly where they were each time  and just continued with the programme.” Secondary school teacher  

In primary and secondary schools the selection of pupils was discussed at length. 

Initially, there were concerns that children on the programme might be teased or be subject to discriminating labeling, as often occurred with children seen as ‘remedial’. It came as a surprise to many that there was no stigma attached to pupils who were on ReadingWise. 

Indeed, discrimination sometimes took the form of more able pupils asking why they couldn’t be on the programme too. This view was confirmed in interviews by pupils themselves who viewed it as a privilege. The lack of ‘discrimination or ‘remedial’ label was an important contributory factor and, as one supervising teacher commented, there was no need to ‘babysit’.

The power of place: behaviour settings 

“When Alex moved down from the top room to the resource area he was a much happier bunny and he began to perform much better.” Teacher  

The importance of the physical and social setting may too easily be underestimated. 

A substantial body of research on ‘behaviour settings’ emphasises the impact of the physical site itself as shaping how people will react within it. Lifts, bus stops, cinemas, football stadiums, and places of worship, are obvious examples of ‘situated’  and ‘conditioned’ behaviour. In the ReadingWise context, the question is to what degree the setting influences, or even dictates behaviour. There are important distinctions between the physical environment, which may be described more or less objectively, and the psychological and social environment. 

Familiar places may be reassuring or, conversely,  redolent with unhappy associations. “It’s not like being in class and not putting your hand up in case you get it wrong and people laugh at you”, said one year 6 girl. As if to endorse the significance of the setting, her classmate added  “It’s just a really fun place to go”. While schools were, on the whole, aware of this, there was not always the choice and flexibility to find the optimum environment. The library, the computer room, a seminar room, hall, or classroom had their advantages and drawbacks, as young people themselves acknowledged: 

“I don’t like the library ‘cos if others are making a noise it gives me a headache.” “In the library, it feels more like a lesson.”

“When we use this room (conference room) it makes me feel really special.” 

A challenge for schools is therefore to make conscious decisions regarding the physical environment in which an intervention is taking place and to value the space accordingly. The mobility of new technology, like tablets, may open up opportunities that did not exist before. Proximity to one another did allow mutual help and support but it could also be inhibiting. Some pupils were reluctant to speak out loud, worried about getting it wrong, perhaps carrying some of their classroom inhibitions into this new environment. 

Commenting on this a teacher said that this was due to a general lack of confidence among the pupil body. Inured to failure they had become cautious about taking a risk. There was,  however, evidence that for many these initial inhibitions had been overcome – attributable to a mixture of environment,  support, and judicious management. 


Does learning travel? 

How well do learning, reading, and the motivation to read travel from one context to another, from a resource centre to classroom, from classroom to home and community, and from home and community back to school? According to parents we interviewed, many reported increased confidence and a newfound willingness of their children to engage with the printed word. The following were comments from two parents of primary school children: 

“It was o.k. in this room, with this teacher.” 

“I was amazed at how his reading’s come on. When we’re in the car, he’s reading things off billboard signs and everything. We can’t believe the difference in him,  to be fair. Even his writing which was a real real struggle for us, now he will sit and write. It’s a pleasure to do his homework with him now.” 

“He’s actually more willing to try and sound things out whereas before he would actively shy away. Recently he’s more actively attempting to try and do it himself” 

Some teachers in one of the secondary schools claimed there was very little evidence of transfer into, or between,  lessons. This is not an unexpected finding in a secondary context in which ‘subjects’ tend to be so contained within their own disciplines that skills learned in one place are not perceived as applicable in another. If teachers are unaware or uninformed about children’s experience beyond their own classrooms, or their own subjects, sustaining motivation and progress is much less likely to occur. 

Sustaining achievement from one site to the next and one day to the next relies a) on coherent and well-disseminated learning policies and b) on the nature of support beyond the classroom  – in the home, the peer group or through study support and ‘out-of-school learning’ initiatives. In both primary and secondary schools, it was said that the majority of children taking part in the programme did not get any support in their home environment with literacy and reading skills. As half a century of studies have shown, reinforcement of learning in the home is the key distinguishing factor between success and failure. 

Yet, in both primary and secondary schools, a number of young people claimed that ‘We’re not allowed to do  ReadingWise at home’. This was explained by teaching staff as a concern that, without adequate guidance, parental help might prove counterproductive. There were, however, instances where parents had helped their children and instances where parents had been well briefed as to the rationale and the do’s and don’ts of supporting their child. 

Following the study the ReadingWise team worked with a group of parents at one site, where a group of Romanian-speaking EAL parents were identified and received training and access to the ReadingWise programme. 

It proved invaluable to have school staff who spoke the home language and who could facilitate the session, both in supporting attendance, and understanding during the explanation of how the ReadingWise programme works. The fact that  ReadingWise is online, and therefore potentially available for learners at home, shows some promise in bridging learning in home and school. 

Danny’s story 

Danny is in Year 4 and lives just a few minutes away from the village where the school is located. Danny did not enjoy reading before becoming involved in the ReadingWise project. He used to say that “reading is boring”. Danny’s father said that prior to ReadingWise, the family had real problems trying to get Danny to do anything connected with reading.  

It was a constant battle as he lacked confidence. While at the very beginning of the programme reading was still a  challenge, as Danny made progress there were tangible improvements in his reading and approach to other school and project work. “I found it boring, to begin with”, he said, “but now it’s getting a bit better. I’m learning better at school and enjoying school more”. 

Danny’s father has always read a bedtime story to him and now Danny will take a book and read the first few paragraphs before handing the book over to his father. They go through collections of books such as The Famous  Five and are currently working their way through the books authored by David Walliams. If he really likes a book that his father is reading to him, he will go and get it in the morning and have fifteen more minutes of reading before he goes off to school. 

Danny takes his reading beyond the home and school and when in the car he will read road signs and advertisements.  Now he wants to read. 

“At school, I am on Level 8 and enjoy the books they give me at school. My new  school book is Dutch Adventures.” 

The beauty and challenges of technology 

There is a rapidly growing corpus of research about the impact of technology on children’s cognitive development, social relationships, and well-being.[2] 

While benefits and dangers are widely disputed there is general agreement as to the challenges of communication with a newly minted generation of ‘digital natives’. Born into a virtual world, children are not only outpacing their parents and teachers - ‘digital migrants’, developing a language designed to exclude adults[3]. 

The Council of Europe  Centre for Modern Languages’ psychologist, Waldemar, describes students as “plurilingual” and suggests that rather than a reactionary stance to this newly elaborated code, it can encourage a ‘sense of adventure’ in the use and understanding of language[4].

A key issue emerging from research into the impact of technology is that a child’s brain, still in the process of development, is highly susceptible to environmental and peer influence[5].  

Programmes such as ReadingWise are  able to capitalise on ready-made skills and enthusiasm for technology, together with an acute awareness of the limitations of the media and the salience of individual differences. They also allow schools, where budgets are currently strained, to potentially reach more learners at a lower cost while delivering impact. For a large majority of the study, ICT was arguably the most comfortable and the most effective medium. This offers a challenge not only to programme designers but to the ingenuity of teachers and school leaders in evaluating and extending children’s learning repertoire. 

Flying solo 

An impressive feature of the programme is the self-management of the users, particularly striking in the case of children who, in the day-to-day school routine, have become used to waiting to be told what to do. 

With ReadingWise, in carefully managed circumstances, children would come into the room, engage immediately with the programme, concentrating throughout and when told it was time up, put away their PCs and earphones and quietly exit the room and go back to their classes. As some teachers pointed out, this routine was very important for some children who were discomfited by change or uncertainty. Where there was, however, a lack of preparation and attention to detail, this created problems for teachers and students alike. The initial training, pre-emptive management, and  careful preparation held the key to a smooth take-off and successful ‘flight’, as one headteacher put it: 

“You could see and feel their sense of achievement.” Supervising teacher 

“It is easy to deliver from the teacher’s point of view. It is instant and the students are learning. Whilst we have technical issues and it holds them back, as soon as they’re  on they’re flying.” Supervising teacher 

Jana’s story 

Jana is in Year 8. She lives with her family in East Acton, a 15-minute walk to school. She enjoys school and the whole range of activities that are available after school and at lunchtime. Her favourite subject is DT Cooking because every evening when she gets home she bakes biscuits and cakes and will often go to the library to get a recipe book or a  book about baking. “What I like is reading recipes and then figuring out meanings”, she says. Jana has also read all ten books by Rachel Russell, The Dork Diaries. Sometimes she will read these to her little sister.

Like some of her classmates, Jana sees ReadingWise as a privilege rather than as remedial. In response to the question ‘Why were you chosen for  ReadingWise, she replies: “I haven’t a clue. Maybe because I’m a good reader”.

She adds: “I like sounding out the words and that helps me remember them better and it really helps me when they split up the words and then put them back together. I like saying them out loud and hearing the sounds, like listening to myself saying them. And it’s good doing it  in the computer room because I can concentrate and nobody is telling you what to do. Just the characters who give you a clap when you get it right. That’s really good. In our school, we didn’t do the Playdoh but I think I would have liked that too. Sometimes when I’m really enjoying it I will spend half an hour concentrating but sometimes just ten minutes.  It depends on how I feel.” 

What would you say to someone new to the school who might not know about ReadingWise? 

“If you’re worried about your reading or your spelling, do ReadingWise because it will help you and reading will be a lot more fun.”

From in-tuition to intuition 

ReadingWise runs two-hour training sessions before a school embarks on the programme,  working with relevant staff to ensure the availability and effectiveness of equipment, using dashboard features such as live view and learner monitoring, and accessing the programme from a learner’s perspective. 

A recent addition has been an online teacher-training module for staff new to ReadingWise, as well as a refresher. The outcome is that individual staff, including teaching assistants, are able to perform the role of ‘supervisor’ and work with groups of up to ten learners. 

Staff were very happy with the training they had received, taking notes that enabled them to explain the programme  to the learners. With adults, staff had the opportunity to try out the programme from both a learner and teacher perspective. One member of staff described the programme as ‘intuitive’, helping students to build confidence when they could see and hear that they are getting things right. 

ReadingWise’s commitment to maintaining regular communications with staff and picking up on problems of access,  changes in technology, and personnel - was borne out in school visits where supervising staff testified to getting support quickly and effectively. As the ReadingWise team promises, ‘the coherence of the delivery team at school-level is an important factor in an intervention’s success’.

Impact: changing ‘mindsets’ 

“The big difference? Children are now more  engaged, more self-confident, happier, and more responsible for their own learning.” Secondary school teacher  

Highly influential research by Carol Dweck on what she terms ‘Mindsets’ illustrates the power of a growth mindset, and the pitfalls of a fixed mindset (‘can’t do it’, ‘not good at...’), which may too often be reinforced by teachers and parents [6].

Knowing what to do when you are stuck has proved to be one of the key discriminating factors in achievement and progress. Seeing yourself as successful as opposed to a failure, Dweck argues, can act as a self-fulfilling prophecy,  with a powerful positive effect on effort, attainment, and intelligence (perhaps not a fixed quality after all?) 

Self-confidence and self-esteem do, however, need to be reinforced and sustained within classrooms and in the home. Enhanced self-perceptions can be fragile when uninformed and unsympathetic teachers undermine children’s confidence. In the Newcastle primary school the question, ‘Do teachers report a difference?’ was met with the answer,  ‘In many cases yes, but we still need to consider how all teachers can push it on’. 

Changes in mindset may be measured by students’ own self-reports as to their feelings and growth in confidence.  The number of positive comments from children and young people far outweighed the negative comments. 

“I like it that I know a lot more now and that makes me feel good and it just helps  me get better and better.” 

There are three elements in the above quote - knowing, feeling, and doing. This triadic relationship is described by  Harvard’s David Perkins as so closely interrelated that it is not easy to determine which comes first [7]. Feeling better about themselves as learners stimulates a desire to know and to succeed. ‘Doing’ successfully brings with it new ways of knowing and heightened self-esteem while knowing what you didn’t know before produces a sense of competence and desire for more success. 

For Perkins, optimum learning occurs when challenge and ability meet. The relevance for teachers engaged with ReadingWise is, therefore, not to lower the challenge, leading to apathy or boredom, nor (as in the case for some children and adults) to set the challenge too high. This is what the Russian psychologist Vygotsky termed the area of ‘proximal development’, taking the learner out of his/her comfort zone while not exceeding what he or she could cope with [8]. 

This, in turn, requires what he termed ‘scaffolding’, consisting of prompts, hints, or cues which support the learner in taking the next step. These are key features built into ReadingWise, welcomed by children and adults alike. Continuous feedback from the research has enabled programme developers to attend to aspects where scaffolding or prompts were less apparent and caused difficulties for users. 

The positive impact on adult students, as reported by the supervisors, was owed to building confidence, satisfaction, and reinforcement of getting things right. 

Supervisors described two types of learners; those who were fluent in speech but with reading skills virtually non-existent,  and others who were literate in their own native language but spoke very little English. Additionally, some who were familiar with the Arabic alphabet struggled to come to terms with the Roman alphabet. Making that transition successfully,  however, proved to be a huge boost to self-confidence. 

Addressing the challenges 

In the initial reporting to the ReadingWise team, a number of problematic challenges were identified. These have been, or are in the process of being, addressed. 

Clapping and rewards 

There were initially mixed responses to clapping, in some cases due to the nature of the source, because of technology freezing or seen by some as too patronising, or persisting too long. As ReadingWise report, ‘We have added the capacity for a learner to ‘like’ and ‘dislike’ the clapping GIFs, to end the reward clapping and/or to personalise their ‘reward environment’, so adding a further empowering element to the programme. 

Motivation or accuracy? 

While motivation and accuracy are not mutually exclusive, it may be argued that insistence on accuracy (such as spelling and grammar, for example) may be demoralising and inhibiting the initiative. There is ample evidence to support the ReadingWise contention that developing learner motivation is, initially, more important than accuracy. The system in place guarantees success for the learner, even if they are ‘gaming’ it. Recent additions reward ‘sequences of accuracy’  – so as to incentivise ‘non-guessing’ and increased levels of focus. 

Issues with the monitoring dashboard

Initial lack of availability or expertise, as well as technical considerations, have also been addressed. From February  2015 the dashboard was available in all sites and allowed staff to view learner progress including useful headlines such as accuracy rates and attendance. The ‘live view’ feature, specifically for those supervising sessions, flags up issues on a per-pupil basis and aims to allow the supervisor to offer support where it is most needed, with the most useful information already available. 

Context, inference, and comprehension

The team reports: ‘The decoding module sets out to isolate decoding and to impact on this aspect of learning to read. However, we see comprehending what you read as a big motivator. We have therefore expanded the range of images; improved sound recordings where necessary; added layers of context, inference, and comprehension to the sentence work; reviewed and optimised the sentence content’. 

A ‘comprehension bridge’ has also been added to the programme, with simple exercises designed to reinforce and develop meaning, or comprehension,  along with decoding. More images have been introduced, and all sentence activities now include images with comprehension and inference activities. The team adds: ‘We are currently developing a comprehension module, which will be ready for trialing in 2016’.

In conclusion 

The evaluation began in early 2015, running simultaneously with continuing improvements to the programme. 

In this respect, the evaluation played a both summative and formative role. Rather than wait until a publication at the end of the evaluation, issues arising were fed back to the team, given that it would have been unfair on children and staff to leave them to continue repeating the same mistakes. 

Despite some of the early ‘glitches and hitches’, often down to inappropriate hardware, software, and connectivity, it was apparent that ReadingWise was able to open doors that, to many, had been previously closed, and that enthusiasm for learning had been re-ignited. It is the testimony of children themselves that carries the most weight, exemplified in two video case stories, supported by evidence from teachers and parents. 

This is, however, a continuing story rather than a tale fully told. There remain areas still to be addressed. The challenge is to the ingenuity of the ReadingWise team, its receptivity to evidence, and its continuing commitment to improvement. 

“We shall not cease from exploration And the end of all our exploring will be to arrive where we started and know the place for the first time.” T.S Eliot, Little Gidding

ReadingWise in the Classroom

Since this study was conducted by the University of Cambridge, ReadingWise has helped over 100,000 pupils in primary and secondary school advance their reading abilities, fluency, and enjoyment of reading. 

Read our other studies: 

The Pilot RCT Report

What’s Missing from the Reading Strategy

DfE-funded RCT

"Reading Wise has been great for our school. It was recommended to us from a cluster school and what a difference it has made in such a short time! We have used Reading Wise as a targeted intervention for 10 children as a trial and have been blown away by the results.”

“In only one term, the majority of our children made at least 10 months of progress in their reading age- some even more! We have decided to purchase Reading Wise for the whole school and are very excited to see the progress throughout the school.”

We are extremely impressed with the impact Reading Wise has had in our school and are very excited to continue our journey. I would recommend Reading Wise to any school!"

Hannah Boardman, Irlam Primary School, Salford, UK

See what other headteachers and literacy leads say about ReadingWise in our case studies and frequently updated testimonials

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Appendix — research design and protocols

We distributed a questionnaire, eliciting basic demographic information about participants - Name;  Gender; Age; Ethnic Heritage; Name of School/Learning Centre. This was completed by participants with the help of designated supervisors or staff members trained in administrating the programme,  and completed prior to the second visit to the research site. The following protocols were used: 

1. Observation of participants engaging with the programme. 

2. Completion of a Spot Check questionnaire. 

3. Brief discussions with all members of the participant cohorts using the Nominal Group Technique (NGT), a form of consultation that allows each member of a group to express in turn their views in an open and egalitarian manner. 

4. Additional learner profile information as and when required. 

5. Where practical, designated supervisors create and update reflective logs. 

6. Interviews with senior leaders individually and in groups. 

York Assessment Reading for Comprehension Assessments (YARC) 

It was agreed that once ReadingWise personnel had undertaken the pre and post-YARC assessments we would be furnished with both a quantitative and qualitative summary of these assessments. This information would then be matched with other qualitative evidence. 

The spot check 

In our proposal we suggested using an instrument designed to assess flow, that is pupils’ total engagement with the task - characterised by being in control, giving undivided attention, aroused curiosity, and intrinsic interest  (in Csikszentmihalyi’s terms a measure of ‘optimal experience’). The spot check is designed at a given moment in the process to ask children to immediately fill out a short 10-item questionnaire without giving it too much thought. 

The form is designed as a semantic differential with three response categories for each item, such as happy-sad,  alert-sleepy, and time passing quickly passing slowly (the latter a key measure of flow). This good idea met with three  challenges: 

  1. interrupting on-task engagement could be counter-productive; 
  2. making sense of the items could  obviously be difficult for struggling readers and 
  3. the words did not necessarily have a meaning for everyone and children had to ask the teacher to explain. In most cases, at the end of the session, teachers took children through the items, explaining what the words meant. 

Interviews: pupils 

Interviews with pupils and adults were a vital complement to observation as was the use of the spot check. The nature of the interviews was dictated to a large extent by timing, conflicting timetable demands, the context in which these took place, and the presence of other adults. Individual interviews had both advantages and disadvantages, as did pair, triad, or group interviews. 

Shy children or children with difficulty in expressing themselves sometimes benefited from being in a pair or group. Self-confident and highly articulate young people could dominate or disenfranchise their peers. Nominal Group Technique (NGT – see 3 on list at the top of the appendix) - a form of consultation with a group that draws out explicit experiences and views in relation to one key question and a follow-up question, with each individual having the opportunity to put forward their views in an open and egalitarian manner.

The research sites furnished us with additional learner profile information as and when required. Participants, supervisors, and senior leaders were interviewed individually face-to-face and by telephone, and where relevant we drew on reflective logs. 

Interviews: teachers and teaching assistants 

Conversations with teachers could last from five to ten minutes, with more formal interviews lasting up to an hour and a quarter. Headteachers found it hard to make the time, especially in primary schools as they could also be teaching classes. Conducting these in the room where the sessions had taken place was often a reminder of what had occurred there and allowed references to unseen participants and events. Less formal conversations took place in the immediacy of the experience, before or after, and sometimes during, a ReadingWise session.


[1] Gaggioli, A., Riva, G., Milani, L., Mazzoni, E. (2013 ) Networked Flow: Towards an Understanding of Creative Networks, Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands.

[2] Howard-Jones, P. (2011) The impact of digital technologies on human well being: Evidence from the Sciences of mind and brain, Oxford, Nominet Trust 

[3] (e.g. 9- = parent is watching, 121 means it should be only one to one communication, xyz means gentle warning) 

[4] Waldermar, M. (2011 ) In support of plurilingual people living in multilingual societies: Policies and frameworks of European language education,  Council of Europe, 

[5]   and

[6] Dweck, C. (2006) Mindset: The new psychology of success, New York, Random House 

[7] Perkins, D. Making Learning Whole (2010), The Mind’s Best Work (1981)

[8] Vygotsky, L. Mind in Society: The development of Higher Psychological Processes, (1998) and Thought and Language (1986)

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